HealthDataNavigator Assess available data on different performance domains across various settings



Key Issues in Conceptualization

Although each definition attempts to clarify the nature of inputs and outputs, they indicate that there is no consistent approach. In particular, there is considerable variation as to what the valued outputs are, including: volume of care, quality of care, levels of quality, ‘performance’ and health improvement, reflecting the lack of clarity as to the concept of ‘valued outputs’.


  • Efficiency of care: “a measure of the cost of care associated with a specified level of quality of care (AQA Alliance, 2006).”
  • Efficiency of care: “a measure of the relationship of the cost of care associated with a specific level of performance measured with respect to the other five IOM aims of quality (Institute of Medicine, 2001).”
  • Efficiency of care: “a measurement construct of cost of care or resource utilization associated with a specified level of quality of care (National Quality Forum, 2007).”
  • Efficiency: “the relative quantity, mix and cost of clinical resources used to achieve a measured level of quality (Pacific Business Group on Health, 2006).”
  • Efficiency: “an attribution of performance that is measured by examining the relationship between a specific production of the healthcare system (also called output) and the resources used to create that product (also called inputs) (RAND, 2008).
  • Efficiency: “a measure of the cost at which any given improvement in health is achieved. If two strategies of care are equally efficacious or effective, the less costly one is more efficient (Donabedian, 1990).”

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